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Schematismus der K. K. Landwehr und der K. K. Gendarmerie…
« Odgovori #45 : 28 Prosinac 2012, 19:55:28 poslijepodne »
Schematismus der K. K. Landwehr und der K. K. Gendarmerie…
1908
1906
1879

http://archive.org/search.php?query=Schematismus%20der%20K.%20K.%20AND%20collection%3Aamericana
« Zadnja izmjena: 28 Prosinac 2012, 20:04:16 poslijepodne glonga »

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The travels of Peter Mundy in Europe and Asia, 1608-1667
« Odgovori #46 : 29 Prosinac 2012, 00:36:41 prijepodne »
The travels of Peter Mundy in Europe and Asia, 1608-1667 (Volume v.1)
pp 80 -

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Kunara?
« Odgovori #47 : 02 Siječanj 2013, 15:47:23 poslijepodne »

Stjepan Banović.Planine Kunara i Papuča u našim narodnim pjesmama. U: Rad Jugoslavenske akademije znanosti i umjetnosti. Razredi filologičko-historički i filosofičko-juridički. Knj. 99(1923). - str. 332-343.

http://dizbi.hazu.hr/?vdoc=861&page=335

BTW, HAZU i njojzine tražilice i nojzina implementacija permalink-a… Baš za akademike. Akademička primjena OAI-PMH, ili se Kristijan razmahao (arXiv - ArhivX)?
A tek paralelni nizovi Rad-a i njihovo odbrojčavanje knjiga… Pišem Mate, pamtim Mišo… i onih pet nula što smo pamtili…
« Zadnja izmjena: 02 Siječanj 2013, 15:56:32 poslijepodne glonga »

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dust on the road to imoski
« Odgovori #48 : 18 Travanj 2013, 15:56:24 poslijepodne »
Roy Trevor. My Balkan tour; an account of some journeyings and adventures in the Near East, together with a descriptive and historical account of Bosnia & Herzegovina, Dalmatia, Croatia & the Kingdom of Montenegro. London - New York. 1911. pp 378 - 380

»We are now again in Herzegovina, but a more fertile part than we have known up to now, the men and women dressed alike in long, coarse, white clothes, baggy trousers and shirt, bare arms and legs from the knees downward, the only distinction being that the men invariably wear red, twisted turbans upon their heads and the women white, stiff handkerchiefs. Times have indeed changed from those bad days. We had a most hearty reception from every peasant, Moslem and Christian, many rushing to the roadside from the fields of Indian corn in which they were working, waving their hands and shouting strange greetings. The road is an abomination, narrow, twisty and stony; so that we endured many ills, the crowning triumph of discomfiture being the dust. I do not know a road, either in Italy or Spain, that can compare to the Imoski road ; inches, nay, half a foot deep it lay, rising from beneath the front wheels in two solid clouds ; it was carried into the tonneau as though by invisible funnels ; many times we had actually to stop and allow it to settle, for it was quite impossible to keep the eyes open, let alone to see. Our eyes, ears, noses and throats became filled, our faces, hair and clothes white as a miller's, giving us the appearance of an aged party of decrepit invalids. Rodgers looked anything between sixty and seventy ; Sheila and Dorothy were coughing incessantly, but looked more enchanting, if that were possible, apparently having returned to the seventeenth century and, as Ken said, " only wanting a couple of beauty patches to complete the picture."

In other countries the majority of the dust rises behind, not as here in front ; if we lifted the wind-screen the dust blew straight into our faces like a sand-blast ; if we lowered it, great clouds of white whirled round our heads and settled down our collars. Rodgers' legs were hidden up to the knee, and looking behind he could see nothing ; but once, when climbing a long hill, we caught a glimpse of the twisty road beneath us, overhung by a long, sinuous, serpent-like cloud floating in the air, the line of dust
stretching back for nearly a mile. Then the heat — heavens, what a heat ! The sun blazed down from a sky of intense blue, not a drop of water refreshed the eye, not a lake or trickling stream, only the waving fields of maize and the grey mountains around.

Imoski is a small village far removed from the busy world, situated upon the summit of a cone-shaped hill ; it stands some 1500 feet above the sea and is one of the coldest towns of Dalmatia, being open to the frequent attacks of the deadly Bora. There is nothing to remind the traveller of Turkish days ; the mosques and Moslem houses had long been replaced by Christian buildings. Even the fine old castle that clings to the precipice edge and overhangs the Yasaro some six hundred feet beneath is but a mass of ruins that pathetically recall a lusty history. Duke Stephen of Saint Sava, the founder of Stepanograd, near Mostar, laid the first stone of the castle, but little is known of its exact history during the stormy centuries of Moslem invasion. Mocenigo captured it for Venice, who retained it under the Treaty of Passarovitz. Wilkinson relates how the Venetians delighted in forcing their captives to leap over the six-hundred-feet precipice, promising them liberty could they but cling to a tiny rock that projected some twenty-five feet beneath and in doing so to check their downward career. Many endeavoured to avail themselves of this fiendish offer, but few, if any, ever succeeded in clinging to the fatal rock, being hurled outward, striking projection after projection, until they disappeared into the merciful waters below.

There is really no need to enter the town of Imoski, for the road branches to the left from the foot of the hill ; however, we swept upwards and found ourselves upon the summit, five hundred feet above the flat land below, and while we argued the road, the crowd that had followed us from the foot of the climb arrived, greatly augmented and breathless, a few minutes later. Two Austrian policemen, the only European-clothed folk in the crowd, solemnly put us upon the right road, and answering their salutes we waded through the crowd back to the level of the plain.«

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Kiste na Lovreću
« Odgovori #49 : 18 Travanj 2013, 16:10:04 poslijepodne »
Nachrichten von der Königliche Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen. Philologisch historische Klasse. Berlin. 1909. pp 31 - 32

»Für Lovreć, ein Dorf in Dalmatien (in der Nähe von Imoski), ist uns folgender Brauch bezeugt (Krauß, Sitte u. Brauch d. Südslaven S. 277): 'Am Vortage vor der Trauung kommt der Brautführer ins Haus der Braut, um ihre Kiste mit der Ausstattung ins Haus des Bräutigams zu überführen. Ein Kind sitzt auf der Kiste und läßt sie um keinen Preis eher forttragen, als bis man ihm ein Geldstück schenkt.' Krauß sieht in der Handlung des Kindes eine symbolische Erinnerung an den Brautkauf, der sonst bei den Südslaven teilsweis heute noch wirklich in Übung ist. Wenn wir aus dem angeführten Berichte, der in dieser Beziehung allerdings nicht deutlich ist, entnehmen dürften, daß gerade der Brautführer dem Kinde die Münze, also das Symbol des einst voll gezahlten Kaufpreises, reichte, hätten wir in diesem slavischen Brautführer in gewisser Weise eine Parallelfigur zu unserem ags. 'witumbora' nachgewiesen.«

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Dimitz
« Odgovori #50 : 18 Travanj 2013, 23:19:46 poslijepodne »
Ludwig Dimitz. Die forstlichen Verhältnisse und Einrichtungen Bosniens und Hercegovina. Mit einem allgemein orientierenden Natur- und Kulturbilde und einer Karte dieser Länder. Wien. 1905.
http://archive.org/details/dieforstlichenve00dimi

Županjcer Elaborat

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Mojsisovics
« Odgovori #51 : 26 Travanj 2013, 14:49:10 poslijepodne »
E. Mojsisovics. Grundlinien der Geologie von Bosnien-Hercegowina. Jahrbuch Der Geologischen Bundesanstalt (1880)
http://archive.org/stream/jahrbuchdergeol01ausgoog#page/n179/mode/2up
A. Bittner. Hercegovina…
http://archive.org/stream/jahrbuchdergeol01ausgoog#page/n373/mode/2up

Offline Thadée

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Odg: Mrežne čitaonice - online polica knjiga
« Odgovori #52 : 26 Travanj 2013, 17:50:07 poslijepodne »
kad te krenilo, deder nađi i gavazzija, on je svoj rad objavio 1902 u beču, to je najstarije istraživanje jezera.... i od njega je potekla priča o prelijevanju



Sve što čovjeku treba je krov nad glavom, tanjur graha i malo pićke.

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Jezera naokolo Imotskoga polja
« Odgovori #53 : 27 Travanj 2013, 02:24:21 prijepodne »


Simeon Milinović. Jezera naokolo Imotskoga Polja. pp 304. — 308.
u: Vjekoslav Klaić, Prirodni zemljopis Hrvatske. Sa 42 slike i 1 kartom. Nagrađeno iz zaklade grof Draškovića. Matica hrvatska, Zagreb 1878. (Tisak C. Albrechta). 8° XV + 406 str. + Karlo Herdliczka: Fizikalna karta Hrvatske, Slavonije i Dalmacije [63 X 62 cm].
http://www.matica.hr/www/wwwizd2.nsf/AllWebDocs/EKPKMHklaicHrvatska

3. Jezera naokolo Imotskoga polja.

Nije možda u svoj zagorskoj Dalmaciji nenaručnijega, s toga niti nepoznatijega prediela, što je od Cetine do Neretve. Svak si ga zamišlja jedino goletnim, kršnim i pustim, a uz to i nepogodnost putovanja sa znatnimi troškovi skopčana čini, da mu se svak izmiče i uklanja; a on ipak sadržaje toliko znamenitih i krasnih osebina, bud s pogleda prirodoslovnoga i bajoslovnoga, kao i jezikoslovnoga i povjestničkoga, kakvih riedko ima u svoj našoj domovini.

Nova cesta, što no je po starom rimskom drumu udarena, počimljuća od Trilja, provodi preko Budimir-gradine, Ciste, Lovreća, Mramora, Drumovine, Krivodola, Runovića, Tialjina i Bigaste k Duvnu i Neretvi, a navodi te svukuda na ogromne ruševine tvrdjava, gradina, gomila sličnih mogilam, svakodobnoga groblja, na ostanke velikih rimskih drumova; na mnogobrojne, veličanstvene i osobite ljepote stećke ili mašete, što te sve skupa silno iznenadjuje, zanima i najveću pozornost probudjuje, te pitaš sama sebe: Kakva li je sred ove divljači morala biti zamašna kultura ? kako li se je kroz vjekove mienjala? kojim li je narodom pripadala?

Nad sve pako začude svakoga putnika mnogostručne starine Lovreća; ogromne ruševine "Gradine", za koje ti puk odlučno i jednoglasno tvrdi, da je to bio "Prilip-grad", te najbolje preostavše razvaline i sada nazivlje: "Dvori Kraljevića Marka."

Nego sve ovo lasno zaboraviš, netom na "Berinovac" (Branivac) stupiš, jer odatle jednim mahom pod oči uhvatiš svu prostranu Imotu, nekadašnju hrvatsku županiju, koja ti najčarobnijih prizora predstavlja. Čudnih li oporba i nadmetanja medju timi krasnimi ljepotami i najdivljimi prirodnimi strahotami! Prema jugu otvara ti se divno obzorje čak preko Neretve i mostarskih planina; a izmedju Zevelina,{!} Vrana i preko Duvna utiče ti pogled prema iztoku ća u Bosnu. Na visokoj brdini Podine (622 met.) opaziš odaljeni bieli varoš Imotski; pod tobom dolje, medju brdi i planinami stere se kao prosjednuto i upalo divno i pitomo "Imotsko polje". Po obroncih uzdignutih mu strana redaju se prebiela sela, uz koja je najradišniji seljak posadio plodne vinograde i pitome bašte, a poljem razveo protičuće riečice natapajući njive i perivoje. U Dalmaciji nije radišnijega težaka do imotskoga priepoljca.

Imotsko je polje razdieljeno na dvoje: na Proložačko okruglo polje na zapadnoj strani, i na iztočno Imotsko polje u užem smislu. Ovo je potonje dugoljasto, po njemu teče rieka Vrlika kakovih 22·74 kil., a prostire se ća na turskoj strani. U dno Proložačkoga polja slievaju se vodurine (najpače potok Topol), koje ga podušivaju. Nekoć je tuj bilo ždrielo, koje je vodu gutalo i ljeti polje osušivalo, ali u vrieme turske navale zatvoriše ga i svaki mu se trag zameo. U sred ove vode (blata) zeleni se krasni otočić Proložac, gdje su nekoć Franjevci imali samostan, te se kasnije u Imotski i Omiš preselili. Na sred polja opet je veliko poljsko jezero, uviek jednako razom površja napunjeno vodom, iz kojega se na mahove pomaljaju glasoviti ugori. Pri polju je sve pitomo i krasno, a po brdinah i podinah izmjenjuju se sa malimi gajevi, riedkimi ogradicami, nizkim grmljem najveće ljuti, česte hridine, upali prodoli i dolci, a nad sve mnogobrojna raztvorena ušća gorskih jezera, što no se od Lokvičića do Imotskoga po vrh Proložca redaju. Izmedju svih pak najznamenitija i najveća jesu: Imotsko jezero i Crljeno jezero.

Imotsko je jezero sa sjeverozapadne strane tik uz varoš Imotski. Ono je slično polumjesecu, u koj je sa južne strane kao upalo strmo i nad jezerom visoko uzdižuće se brdo, koga ravnotežje prelazi u bezdano otvoreno jezero, te bi rekao: sad će se sve u taj grozni jaz strovaliti. Na tom brdu bila je tvrdjava i stari varoš Imotski, koga su Turci još g. 1463. zauzeli i do 1717. držali. Već su se zidovi srušili, a u sred ruševina još preostaje sama crkvica cielovita, te je pogibeljno u tvrdjavu ulaziti, jer uzki puteljak otvoren je sa sjeverne strane, te mala neopreznost oli vjetar može te u bezdan zanieti. Kao što je brdo, tako su i zidovi tvrdjave iztočno-sjeverne strane izvan ravnotežja, čemu se dosta načuditi nemožeš. Rub jezera obsizat će jedan kilometar. U dnu mu je voda, kadkad presuši, a strane su mu kao lietori izrubljene. Rub ovoga, kao i svih okolišnjih jezera, nenadvisuje se niti nespušta, već je sasvim razom zemljišta, u kom se je stvorilo, a budući pri brdu, stoga mu je gornji diel uzvišeniji, a dolnji je koliko i okolišnje zemljište visoko. Sva jezera, pak i ovo, pokazuje ti se mrklje, mračnije, naježenije i razsvietljenije, kako kad unj svjetli traci upadaju. Povieda se, a bit će i istina, da su Turci u vrieme svoga vladanja na hiljade nevoljnih kršćana u ovo jezero bacali, te rado gledali razlaptivanje nesretnika niz te grozovite grozote.

Još znamenitije jest COrljeno jezero nad Proložcem, do dva kilometra na sjeverozapadu Imotskoga. Sve što je najstrahovitijega i najgrozovitijega mogla priroda u jedno sabrati, tu ti se predočuje. Propast, bezdan, strašilo, očajanost, stan osudjenika, užas, smrt, nesmiljenost, prokletstvo, da, i pakao isti rek bi, sve se je u jedno zbilo. Što se je u sredovječno doba zamišljalo, da sukljajuće oduhe Etne i Mongibela iz paklenih propasti izhode, to bi se moglo i Crljenomu jezeru nareći, samo što ovo nesiplje gorivo, niti ga je ikad sipalo, premda bi to mogao lasno u prvi čas pomisliti, razgledajući mu okolišnje strane kao plamenom obrubljene i sve slojeve kao razžežene klačine ili peći; gdje su rek bi gorućim ognjem ožeravljene, od čega mu i ime: Crljeno jezero. Prezamirna li ovoga jezera! Kad se nadviriš, groza te obuzme, i na um ti padne, da je tu možda obitalište nekakvih zlohudnih, očajanih i vrhunaravnih bića.

Ne samo strahota mu, nego i prekozamjerna pravilnost ovoga jezera svakoga iznenadjuje. Koliko se god može okom shvatiti, opažaš najpodpuniju geometričku točnost u zaokruženju i klinastom sauživanju i spuštanju u podzemne slojeve. Okolo stora rub će mu kakovih 800—900 metara zahvaćati, a od ruba niz prolom do vode 500—600 metara sizati, a nitko nezna, koli duboko u zemlju prodire. Lasno bi mogao pomisliti, da je točnu mu pravilnost umjetna i moguća ruka napravila i izdubla. Samo od zapadne strane proniklo je gdje što zeleni nizkoga grmlja. Neizbrojni rojevi pčela izlieću iz pukotina, a na oblake jata sivih golubova spuštaju se i uzdižu niz bezdanu prazninu u svoje pećinaste stanove, gdje jim nitko na svietu nenahudi. Spuštaju se niz gorostasne strane crljenkasti okamenjeni mosuri, ili zažarene pruge, te ti se pričinjava, kano da plamte ili neprestano da se krv prolieva. Hitiš li ma bud s kojega mjesta golem kamen, prouzrokuje strašnu orljavinu i tutanj, koj se nekoliko časova razlieže u muklo raztežuće se mrmljanje, stvarajući nove susretajuće se odjeke. Još je strahovitije, ako u tihoj noći kamen zakoturaš ili pušku opališ, jer tada odlieganje, jeka i orljavina sdružuje se sa tužnim glasom neizbrojnih noćnih ptica, pak ti se pričinja kao da osluhivaš muklo jaukanje, cviljenje, plač i užas očajanih bića, koja te sa nesmiljenosti gorkih jada ukoravaju i zaplašena te od propasti odturivaju. Težko će i najsmjeliji dva put te čudne prirodne strahote osluhivati.

Isto tako, kada se nagli vjetrovi u toj praznini zbijaju i u strašnih se vihorih na kolovrate motajući k dnu potiskuju, prečinjava ti se u istinu, da ovo žviždenje inatećih se vjetara jesu jaukanja nekakovih osudjenika. Stoga je i naš puk stvorio i spojio sa ovim jezerom svakojakih prečudnovatih priča i poviedanja, koja inu označivaju strahovitost. Tu je stan zlohudnih vila, one tude i kolo igraju; oćutiš jim smetnju, kada kamen strmo zakoturaš, jer jim se djeca prepadnu; ako li kamen "u vilinsku zdjelu" pogodi, jao onomu, tko ga je hitio, jer će ga vile dostignuti i niz te strmeni hititi, kao što se je mnogim dogodilo te su glavom platili. Ugrabljenu djecu tamo vile odnesu, pak možeš noćju razumjeti dječinji glas i smieh igrački. — Ovdje se i vukodlaci sakupljaju, jer jim nitko trnovimi kolci nemože nahuditi; a i vještice svoje ročište ovdje imadu; pak se opažaju, kako noćju kao zapaljene zublje po jezeru prelietavaju. I mačići {macići} čuvaju ovdje sakupljeno i pokradeno blago. Tko se umije s njimi sprijateljiti, kao što su to neki umjeli, postat će bogat. Nego nad sve sa ovim jezerom skopčano je i svuda po našemu narodu razprostranjeno poviedanje o bogatom Gavanu i njegovih prosjednutih dvorih. Više jezera na briegu poznaju se jošter zidine od nekakve zgrade, za koje se pripovieda, daje to kranji ostatak Gavanovih dvora, neka svaki može upoznati, kako se je pod njimi zemlja provalila i ovo jezero postalo.

Bogati Gavan imao je na storu ovoga jezera previsoke i prekrasne dvore; njegovo je bilo sve imotsko polje i sva okolica, pa je imao i čim biti bogat. Živio je najrazkalašenije i najproždrljivije, bio je naprama svakomu nemilostiv, osobito naprama siromakom; nije poznavao nevolju, pak jim stoga uviek vrata zatvorena držao, osim što bi jih izprebijao, ako bi u njega milostinje iskali. Kako Gavan, tako i supruga mu Gavanuša još lakomija i opačnija, nije za Boga znala, pak nije siromaku niti pomagala, nego mu se podrugivala i izsmiehavala, te ga izpred vratâ odgonila. Gore gospoje pod suncem nije nigda bilo.

Gavan imao dosta sinova i kćeri, te je mislio u najvećem razkošju i zadovoljnosti uviek dane provoditi i svojim sinovom sve svoje bogatstvo ostaviti. Sinovi bili jur slični svojim roditeljem: nesmiljeni prema biednim siromakom. Jednoč Gavan sabra na veselu gostbu svoje prijatelje: razkošnike i proždrlce, pak su bili već svaku mjeru prećerali. U taj se čas prikaže jedan angjeo u slici odrpana siromaka, išćući u ime božje koj mrvičak krušca za sebe i gladnu dječicu, koju je sobom vodio.

Netom Gavan opazi siromaka, razsrdi se, jer mu u vrieme veselja dosadjuje, a sinovi i kćeri mu odmah potrčaše, da razdražene pse iz vežnje puste i dosadne siromake razkinu. Bili bi to po svojem običaju i uradili, da se nebude uzprotivila mati jim Gavanuša, ne iz sažalenja naprama siromakorm, već jer je trudna bila, te se za se bojala, da joj nebi razlaptanje siromaka naškodilo. Diže se, uze samo mrvičak kruha, što jim je preostalo bilo, udieli ga siromaku, ali mu ga nepruži rukom, već ga na lievu nogu metnu i turi pred siromaka, srdito mu govoreći: "Uzmi gladinče i zahvali našoj blagodarnosti". Angjel uzme kruh, poljubi ga i razdieli medju dječicu. Uz to počme moliti gospoju Gavanušu: "Daj mi gospojo na put božji i kapljičak vode, da zagasim osušena moja i ove samnom dječice usta, a tebi će Bog dati čestitost u tvome porodu i imanju." Ona mjesto da se smiluje, htjede siromaka nogom udariti i reče mu: "Što će meni Bog tvoj, dok je meni Gavan moj?"

Na tako bezdušno ponašanje razsrdi se angjeo, sbaci siromašnu odjeću i prosine nebeskom svjetlošću, uze u desnicu ognjeni mač božjega pravednoga suda, prokune Gavana i gospoju mu, sinove, kćeri, gostbenike i dvorove, te se diže u visinu sa angjeli. U taj čas započe strašna trešnja, sievanje i grmljavina; raztvori se zemlja, prosjednuše se dvori i stvori se "Crljeno jezero", u koje upade Gavan, gospoja mu, sva djeca i gostbenici.

(S. Milinović.)
« Zadnja izmjena: 27 Travanj 2013, 02:47:11 prijepodne glonga »

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Ćorda brijatkinja… Wilkinson
« Odgovori #54 : 29 Travanj 2013, 19:18:16 poslijepodne »

Veliko, Obično, Imacko, Imotsko, Plavo, Modro, Yebeno… Žuta Lokva — Jezerane, Zaljev Svinja… Màcićeva Kamenica, The Devil's punch-bowl…

The One and The Only
The Yasaro



Sir John Gardner Wilkinson (5 October 1797 – 29 October 1875)…
»Wilkinson travelled in Dalmatia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina during 1844, an account of his observations being published in 1848 (Dalmatia and Montenegro, 2 volumes).«

John Gardner Wilkinson. Dalmatia and Montenegro: with a journey to Mostar in Herzegovina, and remarks on the Slavonic nations; the history of Dalmatia and Ragusa; the Uscocs; &c. &c. Vol. 2. London. 1848.
http://archive.org/stream/agv6187.0002.001.umich.edu#page/II/mode/2up
Chapter VIII. p 122.

p 122.

»While traversing the hills, that separate the Valley of Zagosd from that of Imoschi, I was surprised by meeting a cavalcade of gaily dressed men, whose novel appearance at once convinced my guide, that some of the authorities were escorting a foreigner of distinction, who was emulating the King of Saxony's recent visit to Dalmatia; and it was not till our arrival at Imoschi, that the exalted rank of the principal person collapsed into a sort of serjeant of police, lionizing some friends, in the full bloom of authority, which thought to display itself in the vulgarity of gold embroidery, and the finery of Turkish saddles.

It is often amusing to witness the freaks of those petty officials, big with importance, before the astonished and simple-minded peasants; who see, in the dress and insignia of office, a sort of emanation from Austrian imperial-royal majesty, and believe that the power of the employé is in direct proportion to the consequence he assumes. But, as may be supposed, the good they do is in the inverse ratio of their presumption; and none are greater enemies to the poor, or more cringing to their superiors, than the conceited "bureaucrate," who holds some insignificant post in an out-of-the-way district.

Through the centre of the plain, below Imoschi, {◊135} runs the river Verlicca |* Or Verlikka.|, which is crossed by a long low bridge of many arches, terminating at one end in a mill.

An old tower, that once defended the passage of the stream, now forms part of the miller's premises; and its picturesque effect is not diminished by the historical tales attached to it, having been an important outpost, during the wars with the Turks, when they held the castle of Imoschi.
The plain is rich, and of considerable extent, about nine miles by two, or three in the broadest part; and only requires proper drainage, to render it highly productive. The hay, though coarse, is better than in most parts of Dalmatia, where indeed it is neither abundant, nor of good quality; but improvements in agriculture have not reached Imoschi, and they have the same kind of plough and bush-harrow, and the same mode of cultivation, in this plain as in that of Mostar.

At the foot of the hills, before you ascend to the town of Imoschi, is a Greek church, and near it a mill, turned by a stream, that issues from what is called the "Red Yesaro," at a particular time of the year, and is one of the most singular phenomena of the county. Until the middle of November this stream is not in existence, its bed is perfectly dry, and the mill is stopped; when suddenly, about the 15th of that month, its bed is filled with water, the mill is in operation, and the {◊136} course of the water continues to be uninterrupted till the following summer. At that time, the level of its reservoir, the Yesaro, is found to diminish, and the subterraneous channel, by which it is fed, ceasing to supply any more water, the stream again disappears; and the same is repeated every succeeding year.* |See below, p. 143.|

Imoschi stands on the slope of the hills, and from the houses being interspersed with gardens, it has still a little of the character of a Moslem town; though only one house remains of the old Turkish village, which was of very limited size. Imoschi was then merely a military post, with a few houses dependent upon the castle; which is now a ruin. It contains about 950 inhabitants, of whom 100 are of the Greek church, and out of 23,500 souls, the population of the whole district, 800 are Greeks. Its size would only claim for it the title of village, did not the fact of its being the residence of a pretore give it the rank of a town; an honour it obtained in 1820.

It stands high, and is cold in winter, being about 1378 feet above the sea, and much exposed to the wind; and though the houses are well built, and of stone, the rooms are not well protected from cold, the floors consisting of single planks, with abundant space between each, to admit a stream of wind from below; besides which, the doors and windows are numerous, and fireplaces or stoves {◊137} unknown. The snow, too, lies for a considerable time on the ground, and the wind sweeps over it from the N. and N.E. February is the coldest part of the year, and the Bora blows frequently during the winter months.

The roofs of the houses are of stone tiles, like many at Mostar; which they have a strange custom of white-washing, giving them so wintry an appearance, that in looking out of window, on a cold morning, any one might imagine they were covered with snow; but the custom does not contribute to their ornament; nor is its utility evident, as the heat of the sun is never sufficient to justify such an anomaly.

There is a small inn — nothing in Dalmatia having yet arrived at the mature growth of an hotel — and though in a very primitive condition, I preferred it to better quarters with a private family, where the wish to accommodate a stranger often seriously incommodes the inmates. For the Dalmatians are very hospitable, and however great the inconvenience to themselves, do all in their power to consult the comfort of their guest; but it is far from agreeable to deprive the host of his bed-room, and to feel that the whole household is deranged by one's visit; and as they are far from rich, some really suffer for their hospitable efforts. Those, too, who are least able to afford it, are often the most liberal, in their mode of entertaining a visiter; and I generally found that the wealthier the individual, {◊138} the less was he disposed to be hospitable; men who have amassed much money being often little inclined to part with it; from their habits of acquiring being opposed to those of spending.

Imoschi has a bazaar every Wednesday and Saturday, which is frequented by Turks, or at least by Christian subjects of Turkey. They take manufactures, wine, brandy, and some other articles, but no salt, the bazaar of Unka being the place where that is principally supplied; and they bring, for sale, horses, grain, butter, cheese, cattle, goats, sheep, and "the abomination" of the Moslem, pigs.

Other articles supplied by the Turks, at some of the bazaars, are looked upon with more interest by "Young Dalmatia;" among which are jessamine and cherry sticks, for pipes, the latter known by the name of Antipo wood; both which are sold at a most moderate price, Another kind of wood, called Spin Sagrinato, is chiefly brought by the Morlacchi. It is very rare, and being only found in the fissures of limestone rocks, in Dalmatia, is greatly valued, and sold at a high price; and such is said to be the difficulty of obtaining it, that they are often obliged to shoot it down with ball, from its growing in inaccessible positions. It has a dark, rough bark, and from its appearance has received the name of "chagrined thorn."

Persons coming from Turkey into Dalmatia are accommodated at Imoschi with a Lazaretto, and suffer the usual imprisonment of quarantine. 

{◊139} The castle is said to have belonged in old times to Herzog Stephen of Santo Saba; and a stone was found in one of the walls with an inscription recording its restoration by Lubomir *,
| (H)ANC AOLAM LUBOMIR
RESTAURAT ET ORNAT
EJUS PRECEPTOR NEC
NON QUE ……|
who is supposed to have been a Bosnian prince, before the Turkish invasion; though some pretend that it was built by the Spaniards, when in alliance with Venice. Another stone still remains in the wall, on the west side, with the letters M · V · I, {1000 5 1? vs. MDC…, ili 1006.?} probably initials, which it is not easy to explain. It is of different dates, with some additions of Venetian time.

One part stands over the precipitous cliffs of the Yesaro (or lake), an abyss of 600 feet in depth; and it was here that the Venetians {!} enjoyed the cruel sport, of witnessing the almost hopeless effort of their prisoners to save their lives; who, when condemned to death, were taken to the top of the wall, and promised a pardon, if, in leaping upon a small projecting rock, about twenty-five feet below, they could check their downward course, and stop there. Many spurned this mockery of mercy; and whenever any one clung to the hope of success, it was only to afford his tormentors the entertainment of seeing his attempt, and failure; for few were known to succeed ; and toppling over {◊140} the narrow point of rock, they went, one after the other, headlong into the depths below, striking here and there a projecting crag, only to be hurled onward from it with increasing rapidity.

There is a small church, at the entrance of the castle, with the date 1709; {!} and at the corner of the passage, leading to the staircase of the court, is a round tower, built like the rest on the rock, near which is an unbroken piece of wall, supposed {!} to conceal the arms of the Turks. The whole castle is about forty-eight paces in length, of irregular plan, adapted to the form of the rocks; and though inaccessible on the side of the Yesaro, would be incapable of long resistance in modern times; being commanded by the hills on the S. E. This accounts for its speedy capture, by the Venetians; and no sooner had the force, sent to its relief from Gliubuski, been defeated by Mocenigo, than the garrison surrendered, on condition of being allowed to leave the place with the honours of war. This is said {!} to have happened in 1717; but it is evident, from the above inscription, that its capture dates several years earlier; or that it was retaken by the Turks, who were finally expelled by Mocenigo.

The tradition of its capture, preserved at Imoschi does not clear up the doubt. {!} They relate that a party of eighty persons, headed by a monk, the Frate Koumbat, and by George Veich, obtained possession of the castle by stratagem. In order {◊141} to make the Turks suppose a large force was advancing against it, they lighted numerous fires
at night on the hills of Grab *, |This word, so like our own, means "grave."| on the other side of the plain, when the garrison, fearing their retreat would be cut off, abandoned it before the morning, carrying with them whatever they could remove, and throwing the rest into the lake.

Its possession was confirmed to the Venetians by the treaty of Passarovitz; {Požarevac} but, in the course of time, it ceased to be garrisoned, and is now a ruin.

The Yesaro, or lake, is a natural sinking of the rocky mountain surface, like that in Malta called "the Devil's punch-bowl," and others in similar limestone formations, where a border of precipitous cliffs surrounds a low piece of ground, which is either cultivable soil, or covered with water. This lake is called the "Yesaro grande" being much larger than the others in the neighbourhood. It measures about 8098 feet in length, and 2678 in breadth, and is of irregular, or nearly semicircular {!} shape, and surrounded by almost perpendicular cliffs. Its depth is 560 feet to the water's surface, {170.68800 meters} or 623 to the bottom of the lake, {189.8904 meters} where, when dry in summer, are seen many a cannon ball, fired against the castle in by-gone days. In the steep sides are some caverns, one of which is generally occupied by goats, during the heat of a summer's day; or is, occasionally, the resort of wolves, and eagles, in winter; and, indeed, on approaching it, I {◊142} started two eagles, which were feeding on the bodies of wolves, lately killed in the neighbourhood, and thrown down upon a ledge before the mouth of the cavern. {!}

Owing to the slope of the hills, on the western side, towards the plain, the cliffs of the Yesaro are lower in that part; but even there they are two or three hundred feet high; and it is difficult to believe the assertion of the people of Imoschi, "that the water rose about eighty years ago, {1844. - ~80  = ~ 1764.} and ran over them to the plain below;" though the height, to which some of these lakes are known to rise, is very extraordinary: a phenomenon only accounted for, in the same manner as the sudden disappearance of several streams in Dalmatia, by attributing it to the subterraneous communications that exist in the limestone strata.

Heavy rain does not appear to have any immediate effect upon the lakes; but the long prevalence of the Bora, or north-east wind, is generally followed by a rise of the water, and the quantity in the second, or "red Yesaro" of Imoschi, is not very much reduced even in summer. In size this is considerably smaller than the Yesaro grande, having a diameter of 1248 feet; {380.3904 meters} and it is distinguished from it, and from the others, by the appellation of "Yesaro rosso" from the redness of its rocks. It is more circular in shape, and its sides, which measure about 500 feet {152.4 meters} in height from the water's edge, are much more precipitous. The {◊143} water, too, is said never to have been fathomed. Here and there, between the crags at its sides, grow several small bushes, which the natives, scrambling down at the risk of their lives, cut for firewood; {!} and it is curious to watch them, as they emerge from this mountain well, with bundles of faggots on their backs, and to listen, while the loosened stone, that occasionally rolls from beneath their feet, bounds from rock to rock, till it splashes in the deep water below.

It is this Yesaro that supplies the water of the stream, near the Greek church, during the winter months, which the people think an inexplicable phenomenon.* |See above, p. 136. {◊136}| But, on examining the strata, it appears that the discharge of the water, at a certain period of the year, may be explained, by their dipping to the westward {!} at a very great angle; so that when the water rises to a certain height, it finds an exit through the strata to the base of the hills ; where it runs off, and forms the little river in the plain below.

In this Yesaro are some fish, called "glavitza" {l > ao, od 1844. do danas} (glaviza), said to be very rare; but not being able to procure one, I do not know to what species they belong. Another kind of glavitza is found at the springs of the lake of Ottok in the plain, (even though that lake is dry in summer,) which the peasants catch by a sort of trap, consisting of a low wall built round the spring-head, with an {◊144} aperture on one side, covered with a net. The same fish are also found in the land-springs of Krenitze*. |The fish mentioned by Heckel, in the lakes near Imoschi, are Phoxinus Mariglii, Squalius microlepis, Leucos cisalpinus, and Alburnus Scoranza; all which are Cyprinidae.

The other Yesari are very similar to these two, though mostly smaller in size and depth, and it is said that there are as many as fifty, {!} in various parts of the country. At the north end of the plain of Imoschi is a lake of considerable size, called Proloxaz †, |Or Prolojatz.| {loj nije loža} which may be seen from the town. In former times it was much smaller, and its increase is said to have been owing to a stratagem of the monks, who inhabited a convent on the end of the peninsula, that projected into the lake. Finding themselves exposed to disagreeable visits from the Turks, they determined to cut off all communication with the main land; and, having closed the exit of the lake, forced the water to rise, and convert the peninsula into an island, which it continues to be to the present day. {F.M.R. ponorić, Mlikota, Ballif etc.}

There is another lake, at the southern end of the plain, where they are now enlarging the exit of the river Verlicca, in order to facilitate the flow of water from the land. The river there runs under ground, by a natural passage, called "Voragine" ("the whirlpool"), {!} and having passed through, to the other side of the hills, is said to reappear in the {◊145} plain of Gliubuski, whence it runs, under the name of Trebisát*, |See page 41.| to the Narenta at Strúké. {Strùge}

The plain of Imoschi, like many other parts of Dalmatia, has much need of drainage; a great portion of it being under water, during the autumn; and such is the value of the land, that by an outlay of half a million of florins (50,000£.), it is calculated that the government, or a company, would gain at least 40 per cent. By making a direct communication to carry off the water during the winter, from the northern to the southern lake, and by keeping up a sufficient quantity in another channel, for the purposes of irrigation in summer, when water is much wanted, every advantage might be derived from its productive soil; barren marshes would be converted into rich fields; and the climate, freed from fever, would be rendered healthy.

There is, indeed, a canal, on the western side of the plain, made by Signor Marco Werdoliack in 1819, the then podestà (or mayor) {podeštat, poteštat} of Imoschi; who deserves great credit for an undertaking, persisted in, contrary to the opinion of the government, and the prejudices of those who were not directly benefited by it. Neither of these diverted him from his purpose; he undertook it on his own responsibility, and having employed 13,000 hands, completed it in so satisfactory a manner, that, on the report of the commission sent to examine it, he received the thanks of the government; and the poor land, which, {◊146} till then, only produced a scanty crop of sorghum, is now rich and valuable soil.

Having a letter to the pretore, I happened to visit him at the very moment, when he was listening to a multitude of applications, some of which afforded considerable diversion. Among them were some slayers of wolves; who, being entitled to receive from the government twenty florins* |£2.| a head for every male, and twenty-five for every she- wolf, had presented themselves with the trophies of their success. They were simple-minded boors, with the usual long pigtails, {!} loose brown {!} jackets, and blue tights of the Morlacchi; and quizzed by the hat-wearing townsmen, with a display of superior intelligence, they were asked, whether "they caught the wolf asleep," or "shot him unawares," or "if he had any wicked intentions," and numerous other questions; all of which were answered, with a simplicity, as genuine as it was entertaining; though not unaccompanied by the look, that betrayed their anxiety for the promised reward.

Wolves are far from numerous in Dalmatia, except in hard winters, when they come from the mountains of Turkey, and they are only about the size of a large dog. {!}

Many curious costumes were seen at the Pretore's court, as well as in the market place, especially of the women, who, when married, wear a round white head-dress, ornamented with gold and silver pendants, {◊147} which is peculiar to this part of the country, and a girdle fastened by a handsome clasp.

After inspecting the numerous groups, collected at the Pretore's, I went with Signr. Werdoliack, to see the tombs, and Roman road, near Runovich, below the opposite hills, to the westward. A short ride brought us to the Kamen most ("stone bridge"), on the other side of the plain, about a mile in a direct line from Imoschi. This bridge was once guarded by a tower at the east end, vestiges of which still remain. It is not of Roman time, but in the water, near the centre arch, a stone may be seen in summer, bearing this inscription, of Marcus Aurelius: —

IMP (Caesari)
DIVI ANTO
NINI FILIO DI
VI HADRIANI
NEPOTI DIVI TRAIA
NI PARTHICI PRONE(poti)
DIVI NERVAE (abne)POTI
M · AVRELIO ANTONI
(no Augusto) ARM(eniaco).

The stream, that runs under the bridge, comes from the hills to the north-west, and just below it begins the Werdoliack canal. It is supposed that the old Roman road followed the edge of these hills, when the plain was partly a marsh, and partly covered with wood; and report speaks of the tracks {◊148} of chariot wheels, still visible at a projecting hill, about a mile and a half to the south of the bridge. On the hill are some of the early Christian tombs, on one of which I observed a cross. It is the only one left standing, and consists of a triangular headed block, four feet long and nearly six high, placed on a flat slab. It stands about E.S.E., which I found to be the usual direction of these tombs, in other places.

About two miles further on is Runovich, also at the edge of the hills that skirt the plain; where, in the church yard, several Latin inscriptions have been found, few of which now remain. They were mostly dedications to Jupiter; and I was fortunate enough to obtain copies of those, that have been removed, or destroyed. Two, which are built into the wall, are dedicated "Jovi optimo maximo, et Genio;" another is let into the pavement of the church, and much worn by the feet of the congregation*; |crtež|



and the nine that have been taken {◊149} away were principally dedications to Jupiter*, |crtež| by soldiers of the 1st and 13th Legions quartered there. One of them is interesting, from its giving the ancient name of the place, "Nov" or "Novanium†" |† crtež| written in the Itinerary of Antoninus "ad Novas" which may be traced in the modern Runovich. {Bjelowaratz, nu ovog izkonoslovlja! Sa srijede, čoče.}

There are some remains of old walls, and Roman tiles; and in the church is a strange-looking stone, let into the wall, about one foot long and the same in height, which might answer very well as a monster pipe-bowl for a party of Derwishes. In a field below the village are some large slabs, belonging to old Christian tombs, and half a mile to the south of Runovich are nine or ten more; some of the sarcophagus shape, but without sculpture of any kind, except a scroll, or arabesque border.

The people are fond of tradition in Dalmatia; {crteži p 149.}



{◊150} and pretend that these tombs are of the time of Diocletian: nor have natural phenomena escaped their love of the marvellous; and the origin of the Yesari of Imoschi is ascribed to the sins of a rich man, who was swallowed up with his house and flocks by the yawning ground, for his indifference to the sufferings of a poor peasant. With the circumstantial accuracy, however, of similar stories, it is related, that the rich man's wife was saved from the same fate, {! Prominilo se od Wilkinzona od/do Milinovića?} through her kind-heartedness, in supplying him with food; and this, like so many others, may serve to show the value of legendary tales, and the error of those who think that "there is always some truth in local tradition."

On returning to Imoschi, I was shown two other inscriptions, both funereal mementos, of veterans of the 11th Legion; one found in the village of Proloxaz *, |crtež| the other at the sources of the Verlicca.† |crtež|



{◊151} During my ride to Runovich the sun was very warm; and, as the weather had long been clear, every one rejoiced in the unusual beauty of the season; November {!} being generally a cold rainy month, which, from its ushering in the winter, is called, in Illyric, {! 1844.} Stúdeni; for every month has received its name in that language, from some peculiarity, thus:

January is called Siçagn (Sichagn), "time of cutting" (wood for fire).
February — Végliaça, "unsettled."
March — Oxujak (Oxuiak), "clearing" (the weeds from the corn).
April — Travagn, "herbiferous."
May — Ivíbagn, "entwining" (of birds' nests).
June — Lípagn, "fine" (weather) (from lip, or liepo, "beautiful)." {Werdoljak nije imao pri oku nijedno lipovo drvo, a di š Englezu ponudit lipov čaj? Vengo Belevarac što je s ovim akutom (´) u Engleza? Stúdeni, Ivíbagn, Lípagn? Ili su stari Imoćani raztezali Studéni 1844. ko Proložani métar, lítar… i dandanas?}
July — Súrpagn, "sickle," or "reaping" (time).
August — Kólovoz, "carting " (from kolo, "wheel," and vozité, "to conduct)."
September — Ruian, "ruddy" (from rui, or ruj, "red," referring to red wine). {Javorov list… @ Bodensee, rumeni list}
October — Listopad, "leaf-fall."
November — Stúdeni, " cold."
December — Prósinaz, "illuminated" (referring to the advent of Christ).

The very next day the greatest and most sudden change took place, that I ever remember to have seen in any country. It had rained all night, and on looking out of my window in the morning I perceived Mount Biocovo, and all the other mountains, covered with snow. The winter had at once set in, and the rapid change made the cold appear more {◊152} intense; as I was painfully convinced on leaving Imoschi. …«

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Zur Geschichte und Topographie von Narona - Patsch, Carl,

http://archive.org/stream/zurgeschichteund00pats#page/n0/mode/1up

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Thallóczy
« Odgovori #56 : 12 Travanj 2014, 19:23:17 poslijepodne »

Lajos Thallóczy. Studien zur Geschichte Bosniens und Serbiens im Mittelalter. 1914.

Povelja Alfonsova, Napulj, 19. 2. 1444. str. 359.

Povelja Fridriha III., Beč, 30. 6. 1450. str. 378.
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« Odgovori #57 : 05 Svibanj 2014, 01:46:10 prijepodne »
Pugin. Glossary of ecclesiastical ornament and costume.^ 1868.
https://archive.org/stream/cu31924020490383#page/n275/mode/2up
Štap 3.2.

Inman. Newton. Ancient Pagan and Modern Christian Symbolism.^ 1875.
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Europeana



De regno Bosniae ejusque interitu narratio historica. Accedit de Naronensi urbe ac civitate pars altera. Item de laudibus inclytae ... familiae ... Vladimirovich pars tertia, Auctore Prudentio Narentino
Venetiis: Fentz; 1781



Breve Compendium arboris genealogici familiae comitum Vladimirovich
Venetiis: P. Valvasensis; 1765

Cronaca della citta e territorio di Narenta.
Vinegia: Coleti; 1788
http://digital.onb.ac.at/OnbViewer/viewer.faces?doc=ABO_%2BZ178590707
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Ćapkun 1940.
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Petrus Capkun. De organisatione curae pastoralis Franciscanorum apud Croatorum gentem. 1940.
http://bsa.ve.ismar.cnr.it/fedora/repository/ismarbsa:ve00277#tabset-tab-2